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indus valley civilization
indus valley civilization
”Indus Valley Civilization PDF“, in today’s post, we are sharing the Indus Valley Civilization with you. In such a situation, we hope that this Rules of Noun will be helpful for their preparation. Friends, you can Download these notes down through the Download button.
From the beginning for 4th Millennium BC Individuality of early village culture began to be replaced by more Homogeneous Style of existence.
By the middle of third Millennium uniform culture had developed at settlements spread across nearly 500,000 square miles including parts of Punjab Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Sindhu and makram cost dot it was a highly developed Civilization and derived its name from the main river of that Region river Indus
The cities were far more advanced than their counterparts in prehistoric Egypt Mesopotamia or anywhere else in western Asia.
Covered parts of Punjab Sindh Gujarat Rajasthan and some part of Western up major cities in Pakistan are Harappa Mohenjo Daro Sindhu etc in India major cities are Rathore rangpur and Mukunda Gujarat
Elaborate town planning its follows the grid system road will cut divided the town into large rectangular blocks
used burnt bricks of good quality as the building materials
Their Dragon system shows developed sense of Health and sanitation
The towns were divided into two parts upper part and citadel and lower part
In Mohenjo Daro of big public bath green bath has been found
script and language
The script was Boustrophedon written from right to left in one line and then from left to right in the next line
Not yet Deciphered Deciphered
the script is not alphabetical but photographic about 600 under ciphered pictograph
The chief makes deity was Pashupati Mahadev represented in seals as sitting in a yogic posture on a low throne and having three faces and two horns. He is Surrounded by four animals elephant, tiger rhino, and buffalo, each facing a different direction a two deers appear at his feet.
The chief Female deity was Mother Goddess who has been depicted in various forms.
The worship of fire is proved by the Discovery Of fire altars at lethal kalibangan and Harappa.
Indus people also worshipped God in the form of trees people and animals Unicorn further they believed in Ghost and evil forces and use emulators as protection against them
Art and Craft
The Harappan culture belongs to the bronze age.
bronze was made by mixing Tin and copper tools were mostly made of Copper and bronze.
Cotton fabrics quite common.woolen in winter.
Very fond of ornaments of gold silver copper and dressing up.
ornaments were worn by both men and women.
pottery wheel was in use
they played a dice game
Used wooden plows
Produced sufficient to feed themselves.F ood grains were stored in granaries
TTheirforms of burials are found at Mohenjodaro,v iz complete burials fractional burials (burial of some bones after the exposure of the body to wild beasts and birds) and post cremation burials.
The general pracite was extended inhumation the body lying on its back with head generally to the north.
well-knit external and internal trade
Barter system was there.
A dockyard has Been Discovered at Lothal
Trade and Commerce
Inter regional trede was carried on with Rajasthan.
Foreign trade was conducted mainly with Mesopotamia and Baharain
They are the greatest artisan creations of the indus people
The most commonly made of steatite (soft stone)
Majority of the sales have animal engraved on them with a short inscription
If you want to some question Related to Indus Valley Civilization According to some scholars, deline of trade, particularly ocenic trade with Summerians, must have contributed partly to the decline.
Gateway At Harappa: Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan.At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo-Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.
There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures.
Until 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi.
The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favored by a section of scholars.
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